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Typhoid fever INR   0 INR  0
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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high feverover several days. Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur. Diarrhea is uncommon and vomiting is not usually severe. Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In severe cases there may be confusion. Without treatment symptoms may last weeks or months. Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever along withparatyphoid fever. The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, growing in the intestines andblood. Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Risk factors include poor sanitation and poor hygiene. Those who travel to the developing world are also at risk. Humans are the only animal infected. Diagnosis is by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterium’s DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow.Culturing the bacterium can be difficult. Bone marrow testing is the most accurate. Symptoms are similar to that of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a different disease. A typhoid vaccine can prevent about 30% to 70% of cases during the first two years. The vaccine may have some effect for up to seven years. It is recommended for those at high risk or people traveling to areas where the disease is common. Other efforts to prevent the disease include providing clean drinking water, better sanitation, and better handwashing. Until it has been confirmed that an individual’s infection is cleared, the individual should not prepare food for others. Treatment of disease is withantibiotics such as azithromycin, fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to these antibiotics has been developing, which has made treatment of the disease more difficult. In 2010 there were 27 million cases reported. The disease is most common in India, and children are most commonly affected. Rates of disease decreased in thedeveloped world in the 1940s as a result of improved sanitation and use of antibiotics to treat the disease. About 400 cases are reported and the disease is estimated to occur in about 6,000 people per year in the United States. In 2013 it resulted in about 161,000 deaths – down from 181,000 in 1990 (about 0.3% of the global total). The risk of death may be as high as 25% without treatment, while with treatment it is between 1 and 4%. The name typhoid means “resembling typhus” due to the similarity in symptoms.

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Toothache INR   0 INR  0
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Toothache

A toothache is a pain in or around a tooth that may be caused by: Tooth decay Abscessed tooth Tooth fracture A damaged filling Repetitive motions, such as chewing gum or grinding teeth Infected gums Symptoms of a toothache may include: Tooth pain that may be sharp, throbbing, or constant. In some people, pain results only when pressure is applied to the tooth. Swelling around the tooth Fever or headache Foul-tasting drainage from the infected tooth When Should I See a Dentist About a Toothache? See your dentist as soon as possible about your toothache if: You have a toothache that lasts longer than 1 or 2 days Your toothache is severe You have a fever, earache, or pain upon opening your mouth wide Proper identification and treatment of dental infections is important to prevent its spread to other parts of the face and skull and possibly even to the bloodstream. What Happens When I Go to the Dentist for a Toothache? To treat your toothache, your dentist will first obtain your medical history and conduct a physical exam. He or she will ask you questions about the pain, such as when the pain started, how severe it is, where the pain is located, what makes the pain worse, and what makes it better. Your dentist will examine your mouth, teeth, gums, jaws, tongue, throat, sinuses, ears, nose, and neck. X-rays may be taken as well as other tests, depending on what your dentist suspects is causing your toothache. What Treatments Are Available for a Toothache? Treatment for a toothache depends on the cause. If a cavity is causing the toothache, your dentist will fill the cavity or possibly extract the tooth, if necessary. A root canal might be needed if the cause of the toothache is determined to be an infection of the tooth’s nerve. Bacteria that have worked their way into the inner aspects of the tooth cause such an infection. An antibiotic may be prescribed if there is fever or swelling of the jaw. Occasionally, phototherapy with a cold laser, usually in conjunction with another treatment, may be used to reduce the pain and inflammation associated with the toothache. How Can Toothaches Be Prevented? Since most toothaches are the result of tooth decay, following good oral hygiene practices can prevent toothaches. Good oral hygiene practices consist of brushing regularly with a fluoride-containing toothpaste, flossing once daily, rinsing once or twice a day with an antiseptic mouthwash, and seeing your dentist twice a year for professional cleaning. In addition to these practices, eat foods low in sugar and ask your dentist about sealants and fluoride applications.

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Throat ulcers INR   0 INR  0
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Throat ulcers

Throat ulcers are both painful and irritating and are often a sign of an underlying condition. We tend to think of ulcers as something which develops inside the mouth or on the tongue but they can occur in the throat as well. These painful sores at the back of the throat are caused by a variety of conditions which include chicken pox, oral thrush, herpes simplex virus, acid reflux and several forms of syphilis. Untreated tonsillitis accounts for a few rare cases. A crop of throat ulcers will appear as white spots on the tonsils which worsen over time to become grey, pus-filled sores. These sores will excrete pus after a time which leaves a nasty taste in the mouth. Treatment for throat ulcers. If you have throat ulcers then see your GP as he/she will investigate these further to see if they are a symptom of a serious illness or disease. Treatment for these involves antibiotics, avoiding spicy foods and using an antiseptic mouthwash. If throat ulcers are caused by an eating disorder then a programme of treatment will be needed to deal with that.

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