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TeSticles Affections( Hydrocele/Vericocele/Scrotal Hernea/Testiculer Atrophy) INR   0 INR  0
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TeSticles Affections( Hydrocele/Vericocele/Scrotal Hernea/Testiculer Atrophy)

A hydrocele (Br English: hydrocoele) denotes a pathological accumulation of serous fluid in a body cavity. A hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle, and is fairly common.[citation needed] It is often caused by fluid secreted from a remnant piece of peritoneum wrapped around the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis. Provided there is no hernia present, hydrocoeles below the age of 1 year usually resolve spontaneously. Primary hydrocoeles may develop in adulthood, particularly in the elderly, particularly common in hot countries, by slow accumulation of serous fluid, presumably caused by impaired reabsorption, which appears to be the explanation for most primary hydroceles although the reason remains obscure. A hydrocele can also be the result of a plugged inguinal lymphatic system caused by repeated, chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, respectively. As such, the condition would be a part of more diffuse sequelae commonly referred to as elephantiasis, which also affects the lymphatic system in other parts of the body.

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Tinnitus INR   0 INR  0
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Tinnitus

Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present. While often described as a ringing, it may also sound like a clicking, hiss or roaring. Rarely, unclear voices or music are heard. The sound may be soft or loud, low pitched or high pitched and appear to be coming from one ear or both. Most of the time, it comes on gradually. In some people, the sound causes depression, anxiety or interferes with concentration. Tinnitus is not a disease but a symptom that can result from a number of underlying causes. One of the most common causes isnoise-induced hearing loss. Other causes include: ear infections, disease of the heart or blood vessels, Ménière’s disease, brain tumors, exposure to certain medications, a previous head injury and earwax. It is more common in those with depression. The diagnosis is usually based on the person’s description. Occasionally, the sound may be heard by someone else using astethoscope: in which case, it is known as objective tinnitus. A number of questionnaires exist that assess how much tinnitus is interfering with a person’s life.People should have an audiogram and neurological exam as part of the diagnosis. If certain problems are found, medical imaging such as with MRI may be recommended. Those who have tinnitus that occurs with the same rhythm as their heartbeat also need further testing. Prevention involves avoiding loud noise. If there is an underlying cause, treating it may lead to improvements. Otherwise, typically, management involves talk therapy. Sound generators or hearing aids may help some. As of 2013, there are no effective medications. It is common, affecting about 10-15% of people. Most, however, tolerate it well with its being a significant problem in only 1-2% of people. The word tinnitus is from the Latin tinnīre which means “to ring”.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high feverover several days. Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur. Diarrhea is uncommon and vomiting is not usually severe. Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In severe cases there may be confusion. Without treatment symptoms may last weeks or months. Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever along withparatyphoid fever. The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, growing in the intestines andblood. Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Risk factors include poor sanitation and poor hygiene. Those who travel to the developing world are also at risk. Humans are the only animal infected. Diagnosis is by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterium’s DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow.Culturing the bacterium can be difficult. Bone marrow testing is the most accurate. Symptoms are similar to that of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a different disease. A typhoid vaccine can prevent about 30% to 70% of cases during the first two years. The vaccine may have some effect for up to seven years. It is recommended for those at high risk or people traveling to areas where the disease is common. Other efforts to prevent the disease include providing clean drinking water, better sanitation, and better handwashing. Until it has been confirmed that an individual’s infection is cleared, the individual should not prepare food for others. Treatment of disease is withantibiotics such as azithromycin, fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to these antibiotics has been developing, which has made treatment of the disease more difficult. In 2010 there were 27 million cases reported. The disease is most common in India, and children are most commonly affected. Rates of disease decreased in thedeveloped world in the 1940s as a result of improved sanitation and use of antibiotics to treat the disease. About 400 cases are reported and the disease is estimated to occur in about 6,000 people per year in the United States. In 2013 it resulted in about 161,000 deaths – down from 181,000 in 1990 (about 0.3% of the global total). The risk of death may be as high as 25% without treatment, while with treatment it is between 1 and 4%. The name typhoid means “resembling typhus” due to the similarity in symptoms.

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Tonsils INR   0 INR  0
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Tonsils

Tonsils are the two lymph nodes located on each side of the back of your throat. They function as a defense mechanism, helping to prevent infection from entering the rest of your body. When the tonsils themselves become infected, the condition is called tonsillitis. Tonsillitis can occur at any age and is a common childhood ailment. It is most often diagnosed in children from preschool age through their mid teens. Symptoms include a sore throat, swollen tonsils, and fever. Tonsils are your first line of defense against illness and they produce white blood cells to help your body fight infection. The tonsils combat bacteria and viruses that enter your body through the mouth, but are vulnerable to infection from these invaders themselves.

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. The disease is a type of colitis, which is a group of diseases that cause inflammation of the colon, the largest section of the large intestine, either in segments or completely. The main symptom of active disease is diarrhea mixed with blood. Ulcerative colitis has much in common with Crohn’s disease, another form of IBD, but what sets it apart from Crohn’s disease is that ulcerative colitis, as its name suggests, only affects the colon and rectum, leaving the rest of the gastrointestinal tract unscathed, while Crohn’s disease can affect the whole GI tract from mouth to anus. Also, surgical removal of the colon and rectum cures ulcerative colitis, which actually means the disease does not recur after surgery, unlike Crohn’s disease, which has a tendency to recur after surgery to remove the abnormal part of the bowel and connect the healthy ends. Ulcerative colitis is an intermittent disease, with periods of exacerbated symptoms, and periods that are relatively symptom-free. Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission. Ulcerative colitis has anincidence of 1 to 20 cases per 100,000 individuals per year, and a prevalence of 8 to 246 per 100,000 individuals.

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